1.0 TANZANIA’S COMMUNITY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS

Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) are areas of communal land set aside exclusively as habitat for wildlife by member villages.

Following the principles of community based natural resource management (CBNRM), the key underlying assumption of the WMA concept is that providing local communities with economic benefits and involving them in management will promote both long-term health of wildlife and habitat and rural economic development.”

Communities thus have a vested interest in the conservation of natural resources because they benefit directly from their sustainable management. WMAs were formally adopted as an approach for involving communities in wildlife management. WMAs today provide local residents with benefits through associated enterprises that use either wildlife or other natural resources in the WMA. Before the introduction of the WMA approach, there were no legal frameworks for communities to participate in wildlife management, although individual villages could, on a small scale and in an ad hoc manner, enter into business contracts with the private sector.

Without fences controlling movement of large iconic African mammals such as elephants, zebras and lions, multiple villages preserving large tracts of land together are able to collectively capitalize on potential tourism opportunities and more effectively protect wildlife in the area. Such ventures had few safeguards to ensure economic or environmental sustainability. WMAs allow communities to secure user rights to the wildlife resources on their land, and the legal framework allows communities to benefit directly from any enterprise that is based on wildlife. WMAs are established with the aim of enhancing conservation and poverty alleviation through sustainable utilization of natural resources. Why Invest in WMA? There are fundamental reasons which justify as to why one should invest in the WMAs. These include the following: Strategic location: Almost all WMAs form corridors between two or several national parks and game reserves. This unique characteristic makes WMAs to be not only crucial landmark for the complete ecosystem but also amongst most wildlife populated areas in the country. Within the WMAs visitors can encounter diverse species of wildlife just in a short distance of the game drive in the areas. Clear and shortened investment procedures: Investment procedures in WMAs have been greatly simplified to ensure that negotiation between investors and the societies takes place smoothly, quickly and conveniently. It takes an average of 25 to 30 days from commencement of negotiation to contract signing between investors and the respective WMA, hence saving time and negotiation costs. WMAs are 100% managed by Communities/villages: WMAs are under community ownership for 100%, and the communities have been given full mandate to negotiate and sign all contracts as far as their respective WMA concerns. With that power, negotiations between WMAs and investors will not involve other third parties or institutions. By Investing in WMAs, investors are directly supporting the surrounding local communities/villages: The communities which form WMA associations directly benefits 75% of the total revenue from the respective WMA and have the mandate to plan utilization of those collections. The remaining 15% goes to the central government. Hence by investing in the WMA, investors will be contributing directly to the social-economic wellbeing of the surrounding communities through annual collections by the association.

2.0 TOURISM BUSINESS INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS (WMAS) IN TANZANIA

2.1 Introduction
A Wildlife Management Area (WMA) is an area of communal land set aside exclusively as habitat for wildlife by member villages. Following the principles of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), the key underlying reason for WMA concept is providing local communities with economic benefits and involving them in management to promote both long-term health of wildlife and habitat and rural economic development. Communities have a vested interest in the conservation of natural resources because they benefit directly from their sustainable management. WMAs provide local residents with benefits through associated enterprises that use either wildlife or other natural resources in the WMA.

Before the introduction of the WMA approach, there were no legal frameworks for communities to participate in wildlife management. WMAs allow communities to secure user rights to the wildlife resources on their land, and the legal framework allows communities to benefit directly from any enterprise that is based on wildlife.

2.2 Why invest in the WMAS
There are fundamental reasons which justify as to why one should invest in the WMAs. These include the following:-

Strategic location:
Almost all WMAs form corridors between two or several national parks and game reserves. This unique characteristic makes WMAs to be not only crucial landmark for the complete ecosystem but also amongst most wildlife populated areas in the country. Within the WMAs visitors can encounter diverse species of wildlife just in a short distance of the game drive in the areas. Clear and shortened investment procedures: Investment procedures in WMAs have been greatly simplified to ensure that negotiation between investors and the societies takes place smoothly, quickly and conveniently. It takes an average of 25 to 30 days from commencement of negotiation to contract signing between investors and the respective WMA, hence saving time and negotiation costs.

WMAs are 100% managed by Communities/villages:
WMAs are under community ownership for 100%, and the communities have been given full mandate to negotiate and sign all contracts as far as their respective WMA concerns. With that power, negotiations between WMAs and investors will not involve other third parties or institutions.

3.0 REASON FOR CAMPING
Budget Camping

Budget camping involves travelling with all your camp equipment, your guide and possibly a cook in your vehicle with you. Once you get to camp everyone helps cook and set up. This is economical and fun, but does mean that you spend valuable time in the evening organizing your camp and food when you could be out on game drives. These services typically use the less expensive shared or public campsites, but exclusive camps’, or campsites with shower and toilet facilities outside the parks, can also be booked and used. Beds are usually mattresses on the floor of a small tent. Fly Camping

Fly camping involves setting up small, temporary camps for a night under the stars, more often than not in a remote part of the bush. Fly camps are the ideal end to a day’s walking safari or game drive, with many unexpected comforts - a canvas washbasin with hot water, fresh towels, hurricane lamps and delicious food cooked on the fire. At night, the sensation of sleeping in a light or just under a mosquito net, as the moon shines down and the noises of the African night begin, is the highlight of any safari holiday. Luxury Camping

Imagine feather pillows, soft towels, gin and tonic on the rocks and four course gourmet meals in a candlelit dining tent as far from civilization as you can get. This is what luxury camping is all about. The tents are roomy and comfortable, with a veranda in front and a bathroom with hot-water shower, washbasin and toilet directly behind the tent. The luxury tents have a bedside table, gas or solar lamps, chairs and a wardrobe for your clothing. A deep freeze will supply your drinks with ice and keep specialty food items fresh. Laundry is done daily. A large staff will ensure that your meals are gourmet and all your needs in camp are met. Luxury camps are often situated so that you can enjoy the same area for several days. Lightweight Luxury Camping

Like the luxury camps, tents will have metal or wood-frame beds, standing headroom, a veranda and small en-suite toilets and hot showers. However, the tents will be smaller and may be the traditional A’ shape with a central ridge pole. The camps are fully staffed and meals will be three course affairs served by a waiter in a lantern lit mess tent, or on a table under the stars. Pick-up trucks, rather than Lorries often move these camps, so they don’t have luxuries such as a deep freeze. There will usually be wine, beer and soda on ice in camp. Lightweight camps like this can be moved overnight and offer an amazing degree of comfort while maintaining the flexibility of a lighter camp.